Common Eye Conditions
Disclaimer: For educational purposes only information regarding common eye conditions have been included in our website. This information should not be substituted for professional medical advice or care. If you have been diagnosed with an ocular condition, please take the time to educate yourself about the condition and discuss the condition further with your eye doctor.
This is a picture of a left eye. The yellow-like circle located on the left side is the optic nerve. The central dark area is the macula. This area is responsible for optimal central vision and unfortunately is the area susceptible to macular degeneration. The red lines are indicative of the vast blood supply to this vital tissue known as the retina.
Also termed as “near-sightedness”. It is the inability to see clearly in the distance due to the strong refractive status of the eye. Images are focused in front of the retina resulting in a large blurred image. The refractive condition is corrected with the use of minus lenses or concave lenses.
Also termed as “far-sightedness”. It is the inability to maintain a clear focus especially at near due to the weak refractive status of the eye. Images are focused beyond the retina resulting in a smaller image. Farsighted individuals complain of eyestrain, eye fatigue, light sensitivity, and headaches. The refractive condition is corrected with the use of plus lenses or convex lenses.
Astigmatism may occur alone or in combination with hyperopia or myopia. Depending on the severity of the astigmatism two resultant images may occur. Patients may experience haloes at night, starburst patterns around lights, eye fatigue and/ or eyestrain.
It is also known as the inability to focus at near. This condition most commonly occurs in those individuals who are around the age of forty. The refractive condition is supplemented with either reading glasses or bifocals. In this day of the computer and with the ever increasing intermediate visual demand progressive addition lenses or no-line bifocals have become the lens of choice.
Cataracts are opacities or clouding of the normally clear crystalline lens of the eye. They are the number one cause of poor vision among adults, effecting over two thirds of the population older than sixty-five. Patients may experience a painless blurring of their vision, glare or an increase in light sensitivity, poor night vision, and a fading or yellowing of colors.
The most common type of cataract is related to age. However, there may be a correlation to family history, medical problems such as diabetes, an injury to the eye, medications such as steroids, cigarette smoking, long term unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation (sunlight), and previous eye surgery. Cataracts may vary among individuals in the time of development. Most cataracts related to the aging process progress gradually over a period of years. If symptoms are mild, a change in the glasses prescription is all that is required. Cataract surgery should be considered when vision loss has become significant enough to interfere with the daily activities of one’s lifestyle.
Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve and a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Unfortunately, patients may be asymptomatic for many years because glaucoma affects the peripheral vision of one’s vision.
Also known as Diabetic retinopathy it is a direct result of diabetes. Patients with diabetic retinopathy have retinal findings consistent with retinal bleeding, leakage of lipids(fats ), and / or abnormal blood vessel growth. In more advanced cases, the need for laser surgery would be indicated to prevent further loss of vision. As a diabetic it is of the utmost importance to have your eyes examined at least once every year with a dilated retinal examination or sooner should your eyecare professional deem necessary.
Macular degeneration is a leading cause of blindness in patients over the age of sixty -five. Unlike glaucoma, macular degeneration affects the central portion of one’s vision. Patients may complain of missing areas out of their central vision (known as scotomas) or distorted central vision. Macular degeneration is one of two different classifications, either a dry (nonexudative) or a wet (exudative) depending on the clinical findings of the disorder. Macular degeneration has a higher prevalence in those patients with a history of smoking, hypertension, and long term exposure to sunlight.
A common disorder affecting a large number of people in the population. Although it is seen more often in women, the elderly, and those with connective tissue disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Sjorgen’s syndrome). Patients may complain of a burning sensation, watery eyes, and/or a gritty sandy feeling. Symptoms are sometimes exacerbated when patients perform visual tasks requiring us to read, work on the computer, or drive long distances. During which time our blink rate decreases by more than half as we stare and concentrate on the visual task at hand. Blinking is important in re-establishing the tear film on the eye as well as flushing the eye of debris. Environmentally, symptoms maybe exacerbated with poor air quality, wind, low humidity or extreme heat. Medications like antihistamines, oral contraceptives, and antidepressants may contribute to the symptoms by effecting the natural production of the components in the tear film. A poor diet or a diet with increased caffeine usage and low water consumption will further affect the tear film on ones eyes.
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